Our Tellings: Interior Salish Stories of the Nlha7Kapmx People
Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders. Rock painting, EdRm-5, Photo courtesy of Peter Merchant. Rock Paintings EbRk and DStretch enhancement. Detail of painting events, Group1, EbRk-2, Photo by ChrisArnett Map showing location of EbRk-2, Stein River. The village of Stein is located on the benches at the river mouth. Rock shelter and paintings are located on the cliff and boulders left.
Note sandy river terrace, trail and river. Geomorphology at EbRk-2, Note mechanical erosion collapsed rock shelter. DStretch-enhanced geomorphology, Group2, Note collapsed rockshelter. Photo by John Arnett and Chris Arnett. Speleothem and paintings at EbRk-2, Group 3, Initial context above , DStretch enhancement below. Painting EbRk Initial context left , DStretch enhancement right. Portions of the speleothem matrix have fallen or been removed. Multiple paintings incorporated into cracks and speleothem covered surfaces. Painting EbRk with natural iron oxide and speleothem. Painting EbRk and natural mineral accretion.
Rock Paintings EbRk and 19 incorporated into quartzite veins. Ungulate in a crescent. Note incorporation of painting into surface features. Rock paintings, EbRk DStretch enhancemnet.
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Painting EbRkoverlapping EbRk Two ungulates with single body chevron, Painting EbRk Photoby Chris Arnett. Ungulate with three body chevrons. Photos by Chris Arnett. Photo courtesy of Brian Pegg Entrance to rock shelter showing manuport deposit in foreground, Excavation unit occurred in light coloured area at entrance to collapsed shelter. Manuport deposit at EbRk-2, Ground surface Unit 3 prior to excavation, EbRk-2, Note thin surface layer of aeolian sand overlaying darker sediments and rootlets. Darkened rectangle is 30 cm x 50 cm. Note alternating layers of layers of aeloian sand and darker strata, fire altered rock and sand oxidized by fire.
Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders Unit 3 excavation to sterile river sand showing hearth. Note manuports at right surface and subsurface. Red ochre fragment recovered from EbRk Plot of calcium and iron showing XRF results. Four types of ochre at EbRk-2 are indicated by solid triangle, square, diamond, and star. Plot courtesy of Rudy Reimer. Basalt debitage, Unit 3, 6 - 8 cm DBS. Glass shatter, Unit 3, EbRk Burnt fragment of Pecten carinus.
Dentalia pretiosum bead, Unit 3, 9. Prunus ssp.
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Unit 3. Laris occidentalis western larch pitch. In situ Unit 3, 6 cm DBS. Spirally fractured tibia? Posterior probability distribution of radiocarbon dates from EbRk-2 and EaRj Copy of Fraser's map by Francis Harper with reference to Tsaxalis.
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After Hayes Courtesy Derek Hayes. Courtesy Nicola Valley Archives Association Another site with incised quartzite veins is located on the opposite shore See Mohs Markings at Gilt Creek DiRi-6 , Carvings have been chalked.
Moody Album. Courtesy Royal British Columbia Museum. TSee-yA ha shenKee-yAp shm.
Teit Plate XX, Fig. After Teit Rock paintings at Skaitok, EcRh-8, DStretch enhanced. Photo by James Teit. Courtesy Canadian Museum of History Model wearing fir bough headdress of young woman, Courtesy Canadian Museum of History. Two trenches, two sticks, or the numeral two. Rock paintings of cross-trails, EcRh Rock paintings of unfinished basketry or mats.
DStretch enhanced detail showing figures added to EcRh-8 rock after Drawing by James Teit of paintings at s'keehh. T, Section 2.
Explanations: 6, three men, two of them with feather headdress; 7a, black bear; b, fir-branch; c, snake; d, lakes and river; e, trench and dirt thrown out; 8, Face with tears; 9. Granite boulderwith rock carvings, EbRj-4, Photo courtesy of Paul Schmid. Drawings of animals at EbRj-5 by Harlan I. Similkameen Valley. Drawing by James Teit of rock paintings at DhRa Photo courtesy Angela Clyburn.
Photo by J. Courtesy Vancouver Library Archives Strata atTulmn showing fine red ochre deposit, Young woman with face painted with red ochre for puberty training.
After Teit Fig. Dog halter. After Smth North American vision quest model. After Atleo Fig. Courtesy UBC Press.
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After Campbell , Fig. Courtesy Sarah Campbell. Ghost Dance face paintings after Teit Fig Upper row: 1 clouds, rain, rays, something good descending from above; extension to ear has reference to hearing; 2 same but including symbol of sun; 3 ascending rays of the sun. The painting may have some connection with speech; 5 lightning or a rainstorm; 6 cloud line or cloud with rays of the sun shining on its side; 7 the upper line may mean the sky the lower one a cloud, something good descending from above, setting sun Teit Drawing of Nlaka'pamux cosmos by Nau'kwalis of Spences Bridge showing land of the dead top.
After Teit , Fig. Andrew Martindale supervisor , Dr. Bruce Miller and Dr. Michael Blake committee members for their unswerving support and guidance in the creation of this work. I picked the best! A special shout-out to my supervisor for going above and beyond the call of duty!
I also thank my external examiner Dr. Stephen Silliman, departmental examiner Dr. Jennifer Kramer and university examiner Dr. Paige Raibmon for their insightful and astute comments. There are many others I thank who have helped along the way. First and foremost, I thank my beautiful wife Barbara who has accompanied me to many sites and with whom I share a depth and breadth of experience and knowledge impossible to surpass. My sons John and Carl Arnett also accompanied me on later forays and offered insight and expertise which has enhanced my knowledge.
I grew up in the Squamish territory a few miles south of the site we visited but knew little about the culture let alone nearby rock paintings or pictographs as they are commonly called. When a friend mentioned that he had a Squamish friend who would show us a rock painting site, I was curious to go. My only preconception was that rock art was rudimentary—stick figures, lines, dots, animals—uninteresting.
After a short walk along the railway track we climbed down through the trees and along a steep rocky shoreline to an open space above the water with spectacular views south towards the entrance to Howe Sound. Behind us a vertical rock face of granite reflected sunlight from the water shimmered across well- preserved paintings in different shades of red made with brushes or fingertips in a place very much like it was right now.