The British Army in the Far East 1941-45
Finally, the need for a definitive jungle warfare doctrine was highlighted. S on Extensive Warfare and the existing training manuals for jungle warfare were an inadequate basis for infantry training, as the manuals did not fully address new tactical problems such as bunkers. It was not until after the Arakan that periodic Army in India Training Memorandum AITMs regularly included sections on jungle warfare and specific training for warfare in this terrain. In conjunction with the different editions of MTP No.
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The Indian Army produced several new or revised training pamphlets dealing with jungle fighting during There had been a tradition of using battle drill in the Indian Army since pre for fighting on the North-West Frontier. It stated that 'every private soldier must now be something of a tactician' and it was considered that the drill would help develop the initiative of the soldiers. In contrast, battle drill in the UK was thought to stifle initiative. The cover of The Jungle Book training manual, the first popularised jungle-warfare training pamphlet produced by a professional production team employed by the Directorate of Military Training in India.
The pamphlet was meant to be readable and appealing to wartime officers and men, hence the Japanese caricature on the cover and the liberal use of photographs throughout the text. The new edition had doubled the circulation of the previous editions of MTP No. It had a new format that according to General Auchinleck was to be different from the usual, dull training manuals and was aimed at popularising training.
British Army in the Far East 1941-45
It included photographs and cartoons for the first time in order to make it more appealing to officers and men. Its clearly stated purpose was to help COs train their units in the specialised fighting methods needed to beat the IJA in the jungle, stating: 'In principle there is nothing new in jungle warfare, but the environment of the jungle is new to many of our troops.
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Special training is therefore necessary to accustom them to jungle conditions and to teach them jungle methods'. The training manual assimilated all the lessons from the previous editions of MTP No. The pamphlet was the basis of jungle fighting methods for the remainder of World War II.
It was by no means perfect, however, and was intended to be developed and improved. AITM No. The Jungle Book was to be used in collaboration with another pamphlet, Japanese in- Battle - Enemy Methods, which highlighted Japanese tactics. It noted the use of surprise, mobility and offensive action by the Japanese in these theatres. It also showed the Japanese tactics in attack, with examples, but the majority of the pamphlet was given over to their mutually supporting defensive systems, again listing examples and in particular bunkers in the First Arakan.
The Jungle Book together with the other ancillary training manuals became the focus for the dissemination of doctrine in India and for all units and formations preparing for war in Burma. A British soldier sighting his 2in. The 2in. It remained in service for 25 years after World War II. The 14th and 39th Indian divisions were chosen as the training divisions and were withdrawn to reorganise. The 14th Division, which had served on the North-East Frontier during and in the First Arakan campaign, was now based at Chhindwara. The 39th Light Division, formerly the 1st Burma Division, had been involved in the retreat from Burma and had been training for jungle warfare for six months in areas of extensive jungle before being relocated to Saharanpur.
British infantry reinforcements were trained in jungle warfare by the new 52nd Brigade at Budni in Bhopal State, after a spell of basic training with the 13th Battalion, The Sherwood Foresters, at Jubbulpore. After two months in the training divisions the recruits were sent to the reinforcement camps, where training continued until they could join their battalions.
The rest and reinforcement camps were reorganised under Colonel J. They had been set up in April on the example of those in the Middle East and were designed to hold and train 3, troops. The instructors were from India, often with little experience of frontline conditions, and ratios of instructors to troops were very low with little direction for training, all resulting in poor morale and cases of ill discipline. After August , each camp was allocated to a particular division, divisional flags were flown in the camps and formation signs were worn, helping the reinforcements feel they were already part of the division and improving morale.
In addition, realistic training was undertaken and discipline was restored. The Indian High Command ensured that jungle warfare training formed the main focus of all training carried out by units, formations and at training establishments throughout India. The work of specialised training establishments already dealing with jungle fighting was stepped up. Each course lasted for 15 days and demonstrated new tactics required for jungle warfare to British and Indian officers and other ranks.
The course not only covered jungle training but also a period of battle inoculation to accustom students to the noise and confusion of battle. As Captain Morris commented, having undertaken the instruction: This course is partly to train people to fight in the jungle, and partly to get people accustomed to being fired at. For the first few days we had a pretty strenuous time, doing attacks and bayonet fighting and obstacle courses etc. The enemy is usually dummies, but the instructors fired at us quite a bit and let off bombs and things to make everything more realistic.
It finished with a three-day course in the jungle. Lessons learnt at the school were then taken back to the battalion by officers and ensured these ideas were put into practice. Other criticisms included a lack of compass work and that students were surprised by the physical and mental strain that the jungle imposed on them.
It was also perceived that the contents of the course were not being absorbed by the parent units, which failed to take advantage of men trained as instructors at GHQ Jungle Warfare Schools. Due to the demand for places on the course a second jungle warfare school was opened at Shimoga in November Morris, 14 August , Morris Mss. Following the formation of the training divisions it was now given the role of training complete units or cadres in jungle warfare skills.
For example, all three battalions of the newly formed 50th Indian Parachute Brigade were trained at Raiwala. The training comprised three stages. The first week consisted of drills for jungle manoeuvres and different types of ambush. The second week comprised training schemes for all-day and all-night fighting. The final week consisted of two separate two-day exercises. Overall, training proved invaluable when the battalion was caught up in the fighting at Sangshak in March The threat posed by malaria had clear training implications that were also addressed by India Command.
For example, a medical school of jungle warfare was set up in July by 26th Indian Division.
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Medical advances had ensured that malaria could be contained through Prepared nder he direc ion of he insecticides, anti-malarial discipline and mepracrine, C h j e f 0 t n elm p e rJ a 1 Ge n era 1St a ff although casualties remained a problem. Antimalarial discipline was strictly enforced and, by late, these measures had proved to be largely successful.
The drill was originally adopted by 23rd Indian Division and later adopted by all operational formations. Malaria rates Military Training Pamphlet No.
Sepoys against the Rising Sun: The Indian Army in Far East and South-East Asia, –45 - PRIO
To combat this a policy was Uune This training manual adopted whereby training should be restricted to non-malarial areas in Northern was produced by the War Office India where the malaria season was short. Malaria casualties in was over. Training continued after the battles of Kohima and Imphal as units and formations prepared for the next phase of the fighting and lessons of the recent fighting were absorbed into later editions of the AITMs.
The development of training and tactical methods was a continuous process and new reinforcements had to be absorbed into units. Training manuals for jungle warfare were now in abundance. Other feedback from the front included Battle Bulletins, which comprised first-hand accounts of patrolling, operations and fighting. In this particular theatre, from onwards it was the 14th Army.
In an army there are usually two or three corps and three divisions within a corps. An army division was composed of three brigades of three battalions, one of which would be a British Army battalion in an Indian Army division. All the divisions bar one that fought in this theatre were infantry divisions. There were three British divisions in theatre, namely the regular British Army 2nd Division, 18th Division and the 36th Division.
The majority of the Commonwealth troops were provided by the Indian Army, which contributed 13 infantry divisions and one airborne division in South-East Asia. As Major-General Henry 'Taffy' Davies, Commander of 25th Indian Division, commented in his memoir: The Division, as all soldiers know, is the basic fighting formation in practically every army in the world. It is large and powerful enough with its establishment of about At the same time, it is sufficiently compact to enable its commander to exercise a personal leadership and control and to permit its functioning as a well co-ordinated team.
In the British Army, during two world wars, the Divisional spirit has been something which has been fostered and nourished as an important matter of principle. It was designed by Slim himself, but was only adopted after an open competition. The red and black represented the colours of the British and Indian armies and the sword pointed downwards, against heraldic convention, because Slim knew that the 14th Army would have to re-conquer Burma from the north.
The hilt formed the'S'.